Most leather shoes are designed for sole replacement and refurbishment. Typical techniques include:
Sewn constructions use a welt or a strip of leather, rubber, or plastic that is stitched to the upper and insole of a shoe, as an attach-point for the sole. The space enclosed by the welt is then filled with cork or some other filler material (usually either porous or perforated, for breathability), and the outsole is both cemented and stitched to the welt.
Veldshoen construction instead of the upper leather turning underneath the insole like more common constructions, the Veldtschoen turns outwards and is stitched directly to the mid-sole.
Cemented shoe construction is one in which the upper fabric of the shoe is attached to the sole by a light layer of cement rather than by stitching.
Rubber or Artifical Materials
Rubber or Rubber-like artificial engineered materials utilize Vulcanized processes or injection moulding techniques.
NOTE: Few of these allow for repair and replacement.
The Visible Parts of a Shoe
The Quarter - member of the 'backpart' of the shoe, horseshoe shaped piece of leather, cradles heel of foot
Topline - top edge of the quarter
Heel - obvious part, 'toplift' part in contact with ground, 'heel base' between toplift and sole, 'heel seat' inside shoe where heel contacts, many variations: Cuban, Louis, Wedge, etc.
Instep - location which corresponds to instep of foot
Waist - area of shoe between instep and ball of foot
Tongue - leather flat under laces
Throat - area just in front of waist and behind ball on upper surface of shoe
Vamp - technically whole forepart of shoe upper, but more commonly top surface of the ball
Toe cap - reinforcement piece over toe of shoe
Outsole - bottom layer of shoe in contact with ground
Shank - part of outsole under arch of foot
The Structural Elements
Outsole - various materials used, material varies according to: quality / style / utility requirements
Insole - structural hub of shoe, many other components attached to it, usually made of leather, must absorb moisture, be light and flexible, resist curling and cracking
Midsole - for shoes requiring heavy or reinforced base, between outsole and insole, usually composite material
Counter - reinforcement for back of shoe, stiffened fibre material, shaped to contour to sides and back of heel, helps to keep the shape of the shoe
Box Toe (toe puff) - reinforcement concealed beneath upper at toe
Shankpiece - sandwiched between outside and inside along shank of shoe under arch, NOT an arch support, reinforcement to strengthen 'bridge' between heel and forefoot, usually made of metal
Quarter Lining - horseshoe shape around back part of shoe
Vamp Lining - inside upper of forepart and toe of shoe
Sock Lining - covering all OR part of the top surface of the insole